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Round Dance Tips by Tim Eum—

A Few Waltz Figures

Balance Left and Right (phase 1)

"Balance Left and Right" is relatively simple. To Balance to man's left, step side with the lead foot (man's left, lady's right), then cross behind with the trail foot (man's right, lady's left), and finally recover back onto the lead foot. To Balance to man's right, just do the same thing in the opposite direction, i.e., step side, cross behind, and recover but beginning with the trail foot. There are at least two more key things to do that many dancers do not do. To get the true feel for the waltz Balances you should add rise and fall to the steps. When stepping side, there should be a slight bend in knees which lowers your body. Then, when you start to take weight onto your second step (the cross behind), you begin to straighten your legs, which begins your body rise, which you can continue up onto your toes. Finally, as you recover onto the third step, you lower. Note that this lowering motion gives you a little momentum to flow smoothly into the next figure. A second key thing to do is to add sway. On the Balance Left, you step side with your lead foot, stretch your lead side so that your lead hands tilt up and your trail hands tilt down. You also turn your head towards the side of the lowered hands. On the Balance Right, step side with your trail foot, stretch your trail side so that your trail hands tilt up and your lead hands tilt down. Turn your heads towards your lead side. There are some common "errors" that dancers often make with Balance Left and Right. One common error is to only do a step and touch rather than the three-step balances described above. While you can do a step and touch for a balance step in waltz, doing so tends to make the "rise and fall" and "sway" motions less pronounced or even omitted, and this leads to a "start and stop" hesitation in the figure rather than the flowing figure that it should be. Another common error is to pop up and pop down. Some dancers stay level on the first step, then pop up when doing the second step, then pop down when doing the final third step of the waltz Balance. To avoid this, remember to lower in the first step and begin rising even before taking the second step, then flow into the rise of the second step, and begin lowering even before taking the third step, finally flowing into the third step, which will lower even more as you flow into the next figure.
 

Interrupted Box (phase 3)

"Feed the Birds" has an interesting figure called an "Interrupted Box". While this figure is rare in round dancing and has only recently been added to the RAL manual, it is one of the very first figures in the American DVIDA Bronze Waltz syllabus -- in fact, it is figure number 1B "Box with Underarm Turn" with figure 1A being the straight "Box". The Interrupted Box is a four measure figure. If you just did the first and last measures of the figure, you would be doing just a straight waltz Box. Think of this figure as starting a waltz Box, doing a lady under and around, and then finishing with the last half of the waltz Box -- thus it is a box that is interrupted with the lady circling under and around. The man's steps are just two full waltz boxes -- he raises his lead hand and maintains lead hand hold as the lady circles under and around on measures two and three. Start and finish the figure in closed position. The lady begins with the first half of a waltz Box, then circles right-face under the lead hands and around to face in six steps, and then finishes with the second half of a waltz Box. 

Pivot to Semi-Closed Position (phase 3)

Most round dancers first encounter a pivot in a phase 2 two step. It usually began in CP facing RLOD, and it was like a rotating rock back (rock forward for lady) and recover turning right face ¾ to end facing wall. When round dancers get to waltz, they try to do the same thing except to add a third step to LOD ending in SCP. But there are some techniques that dancers really should add to the pivot to make it dance smoother and “float”. The first point is that, yes, you normally do begin a pivot facing RLOD, and the man steps back with the lead foot on that first step. Note that some men incorrectly step side or even forward on this first step. Here’s a tip – all steps of the pivot should be taken toward LOD (or into the direction of forward progression for the couple). Since the man starts facing RLOD, stepping back is a step toward LOD. The second point is that the dancers should start in CP and stay in CP for almost the entire pivot. Doing this will almost certainly enable the man and lady to turn together as one instead of being apart and, as is so often seen, turning independently with the man going one way and the lady another. Staying in CP position means that when the man steps back on the first step, the lady must step with her right foot deeply in-between the man’s legs. The lady should step in far enough that her right thigh makes contact with the man’s right thigh. Many ladies are shy and do not step in close, which results in the couple separating and no longer being in CP and then having trouble turning together. Likewise, on the second step of the pivot, the man must step forward deeply between the lady’s legs so as to maintain CP. The third point is that you must pivot on the ball/toes of your foot. The moment you let the entire foot contact the floor is the moment your pivot rotation stops. You can turn the body a little when you are “flat footed” but after a certain point you will be straining your knee and twisting uncomfortably. Don’t do it; stay up on your toes while rotating and let your foot swivel with you while you pivot. The fourth point is that when you are pivoting, keep your right thighs together with your partner’s. That means that when you step back on your left and rotate right face that you keep your right leg (and right thigh) in front of you as you turn. One nice thing about this is that when it is time to step on that right foot, keeping it in front of you will have placed it exactly where it needs to be and you simply have to put weight onto it – no need to do any additional movement to take the step. The fifth point is that in waltz there is supposed to be rise and fall. That means you slightly lower into the first step of the pivot, rise up on the second step of pivot where it feels like a rotating hover step, and then “float or drift” down on the third step. I “sit” slightly as I step back on the first step of the pivot and after rotating to face LOD, I “push” or “spring” up into the second step of the pivot getting high on my toe, and then I let the momentum carry me into the third step of the pivot ending in SCP. Lastly, it is said that there is no sway in a pivot but you can expand your top line to make the pivot feel faster and look bigger. If you can, try it by puffing out your chest a little and letting your head move up and away from your partner slightly to your left while holding your arms wide encircling your partner. If your partner is doing the same thing, you will counterbalance with each other and will make the pivot exciting. 

Hover Corte (Waltz – phase 4) 

Hover Corte” sounds more difficult than it is. It is very similar to the phase 3 Spin Turn except that the Hover Corte starts with the trail foot (man’s right, lady’s left) and turns left-face. It usually starts in CP facing RLOD. On the first step, the man steps back with his right foot (lady forward with her left) and begins pivoting left-face. On the second step, the man steps side and forward quickly rising to full height where the couple simply “hovers” on their lead foot (man’s left and lady’s right) continuing to turn left-face but slowing to a stop (i.e., stopping the pivoting action). The couple turns enough left-face that they end in BJO facing LOD still high on their toes. On the third and last step the man steps back (lady forward). 

As with most “Hover” figures, the dancers may choose the alternate timing of &-S-& instead of the normal 1-2-3 (i.e., even timing). What this means is to rush the first step, linger longer on the second step, and then rush the last step. Doing this allows the dancers to spend a moment longer up high on their toes on the second step, slowly turning the hover – perhaps giving a more exhilarating feeling.

The lady should brush on her second step, i.e., allow her free foot (left) to draw up without weight to the foot she is doing the turning hover upon, then to take an actual step forward on the next step. If the man can maintain his balance, he may also brush on the second step. Roundalab however specifies that the dancers leave the free foot behind in place as they do their hovering step and then recover on the third step. I think this loses the true feel of the high turning hover and does not look as elegant. 

Although the Hover Corte almost always starts facing RLOD, it can be done starting with man facing LOD or even other alignments. For instance, in Castles and Kings, there is the sequence “One Left Turn ; Hover Corte ; Outside Spin ; Hover Corte.” The first Hover Corte is the normal one with the man starting facing RLOD, but the second one has the man starting facing LOD. This second Hover Corte is perhaps made even a little more difficult because the figure before it, the Outside Spin, turns right-face aggressively, and you have to have good balance and control to stop that in order to turn left-face for the Hover Corte. 

Outside Change (Waltz, phase 4) 

Whenever Outside Change is cued, it is common for men to lead the couple to turn the wrong way. This is because so many other figures (pivot, two right turns, spin turn, impetus, etc.) turn right-face when going backwards with the lead foot free, and the Outside Change instead turns left-face. The men have to fight the urge to do what they usually do with those other figures in order to do an Outside Change. One anatomical way I’ve heard, to help men remember which way to turn, is to have them direct their “butt in” (towards center of hall), which turns them to face correctly toward the wall. An Outside Change begins in either Closed Position or Banjo and almost always begins facing toward RLOD or DRW. It begins with lead foot free and taking a step back (forward for lady). Do not turn on this first step – simply go straight back. If you do try to turn, you will probably turn the wrong way (right-face). On the second step, the man takes a step back and side with his right foot and then swivels left-face toward the wall. The lady will step forward into CP and turn left-face on her toe with the man. The third and last step of the Outside Change is a side step toward DLW or LOD with the lead foot. At the end of the side step the lady will either turn 1/8 right-face to end in SCP or will turn 1/8 left-face to end in BJO. The man will turn his upper body frame either right-face to help the lady turn to SCP or turn his upper body frame left-face to help the lady turn to BJO. At the end of the Outside Change, the trail foot should be free. Note that the Outside Change is the same as the last three steps of the Waltz Weave 6. 

Cross Hesitation (WZ, phase 4) 

The Cross Hesitation is not done as often as some other figures and thus elicits a “what’s that” feeling in many dancers. Usually the word “hesitation” means you will hold at least one beat in the figure, and while that is true in the Cross Hesitation for the man, it is not true for the lady. Think of this figure as similar to a Wing where the man takes one step and the lady takes three. It even begins like a Wing, in SCP with trail foot free, with the first step being through with man’s right and lady’s left. Just as in the Wing, after the lady takes weight on her first step she begins turning left-face by turning her right shoulder more towards the man and swiveling slightly left-face. The man takes no more weight-taking steps for the rest of the figure – the first step was the only one – but just like in a Wing the man will be leading the lady around to his left side by rotating his upper body frame left- face. The lady takes her second step around the man with her right foot staying close enough to not only stay in SCP but close enough that swiveling to face her partner after taking weight on that second step puts her in CP. The couple should have rotated enough left-face so that the man is facing at least DLC at the end of the lady’s second step (if started from SCP-LOD on the first step). The couple continues to rotate left-face after the lady's second step, finally ending in BJO with the man facing DRC. Both man and lady rise up onto their toes for the lady to swivel during her second and third steps. The lady then takes her third and last step closing in place. 

Hesitation Change (Waltz, phase 4) 

There are two “Hesitation” figures that dancers sometimes get mixed up: the Hesitation Change and the Cross Hesitation (see above). One primary difference between the two is that the first step of a Hesitation Change goes back (for the man) with the lead foot while the first step (for the man) of a Cross Hesitation goes forward with the trail foot. Another is that in the Cross Hesitation it feels like the lady “crosses over” from one side of the man to the other while in the Hesitation Change both man and lady turn together with lady staying on man’s right side. 

The Hesitation Change usually begins in CP facing toward RLOD (or DRC or DRW) with the lead foot free. Think of the first step more like a pivot than as a turn – the man steps back and the lady steps forward and both pivot right-face on the lead foot, staying in CP and rotating until the man is facing DLC. The second step is then side with the trail foot. This step should be fairly wide, moving the couple sideways to the man’s right. It is also nice to use a lunging action by relaxing the knees (thus lowering) and adding a sway with the upper body swaying to man’s left. The third and last step of the Hesitation Change is not a step but an action (movement without taking weight) – draw the lead foot (man’s left and lady’s right) in toward the weighted trail foot, rising to normal height and regular CP (i.e., lose the sway). 

Spin Overturn (Waltz, phase 3)

The phase 3 waltz figure, Pivot to Semi-Closed Position, is done with three steps, the first two being right face pivot steps and the last one a simple step side and forward to SCP. There is another figure that is very similar to the Pivot to Semi-Closed Position. This other figure has the same first two steps but then suppose that instead of taking the third step to SCP, you instead stay in Closed Position and step back on the third step. Doing this has sometimes been referred to as an Overturned Spin Turn or “OverSpin Turn” for short, and now as a Spin Overturn. In a normal Spin Turn, you start in CP with lead foot free (man’s left, lady’s right) and proceed as if you are doing a Pivot to SCP but on step two you slow your rotation almost to a stop, hovering high on your toe, before stepping back on the third step. A normal Spin Turn usually starts facing RLOD and ends facing DLW thus turning right face 5/8. A Spin Overturn uses exactly the same footwork and even the same rise and fall and techniques as a regular Spin Turn but instead turns 7/8 to end facing DRW. Note that in an Spin Overturn you start in CP, you stay in CP, and you end in CP. 

Slow Side Lock (Waltz, phase 4)

The Slow Side Lock is a phase 4 waltz figure that at first glance seems simple to do. After all, it is only three steps and looks like it is nothing more than a thru to a pickup except that you lock on the last step instead of closing. But what you might not realize are a couple of techniques to make it feel smooth instead of strained. Start in Semi-Closed Position (SCP). Begin by stepping thru. Note that the lady also steps straight thru, the same as the man -- she does not step "across" the man -- which some try to do because they think they are supposed to get in front of the man. What the lady should do after stepping straight thru on the first step is to immediately get up on her toe and swivel to face the man. She will end in closed position or "loose" closed position, still on the "outside". The second step of the Slow Side Lock is a side step for both man and lady with the lead foot (man's left, lady's right). But at the end of the second step there is an important thing to do -- both man and lady should continue rotating left face on the ball of their lead foot. This will cause the man's right foot to "twist" to the back of the man's left leg and the lady's left foot to "twist" to the front of her right leg. By simply letting the trail feet twist to these positions and then placing weight on them you easily and smoothly do the final "crossing" step of the Slow Side Lock. By the way, the last two steps of the Slow Side Lock are very similar for the lady to the last two steps that she does for the Double Reverse (phase 5). 

Back Passing Change (Waltz, phase 4)

The Back Passing Change is simply three backward steps (3 forward steps for the lady) beginning with the lead foot (man’s left, lady’s right) in Banjo position in normal 1-2-3 waltz timing. Some would say this could be cued as “Back Waltz”. But it is different because a Back Waltz has rise and fall and is a “back, bk & sd, close” (i.e., a little like a back half box). In the Back Passing Change all three steps progress backwards (for man) and all three are passing steps. Note that because all three steps are passing steps, there is almost no rise and fall as in other waltz figures. Well then, why not simply cue this as Back Run 3? If cued and danced as a Back Run 3, this figure would only be a phase 1 figure. Why would anyone consider this to be a phase 4 figure? Is it just the fancy name? By the way, the “back” and the “passing” are obvious, but why is there “change” in the name? The reason is that you start with lead foot free and end with trail foot free and have thus by doing the figure changed which foot is free.

Although you can dance a Back Passing Change as a Back Run 3 (phase 1), there are some techniques that you can apply to truly make it more beautiful and deserving of the phase 4 difficulty level. First, the figure is done in BJO for all three steps. If your feet are pointing to RLOD (LOD for lady) but you turn your upper body frame 1/8 to the right and both the lady’s feet are pointed to LOD outside of partner and the lady is still in front of the man with her right hip in contact or close to the front of the man’s right hip -- then you will be in “Contra-Banjo” position. This is more graceful than a “flat” banjo and much better than a “side by side” banjo, which you often see less experienced dancers use. Another technique to use in the Back Passing Change is for the man to stretch his right side (lady stretches her left side), which slightly tilts the upper body frame to man’s left. This (in addition to turning upper body frame RF to Contra-BJO) should cause the lady’s head to turn to her right (i.e., open her head) for the remainder of the figure, returning back to her left (i.e. closing her head) when the man loses the sway going into the next figure. One last tip – make sure you really do pass your steps by taking normal length steps – not little baby steps. The idea of this figure is to have some movement and progression, which is not achieved with tiny steps. Put a little “whoosh” in your waltz. 

Mini Telespin (phase 5) --

There are several Telespin figures in round dancing. All are phase 6 figures except for the Mini Telespin, which is phase 5. All of the Telespin figures, including the Mini Telespin, are two measure figures, and all begin the same way (i.e., the first measure is the same). 

The first measure of a Mini Telespin (and all other Telespins) is essentially an Open Telemark (i.e., Telemark to SCP) except that man does not take full weight on his third step (he simply points the left toe) and that the lady takes an extra syncopated fourth step going forward around the man. The timing of this first measure is thus 1,2,3& where the man only takes weight on the first two beats and the lady takes a total of four steps, with the last two being syncopated. Remember that for the first two steps of an Open Telemark where you start in CP (usually facing LOD or DLC), the man steps forward (lady back) with lead foot turning left face and then steps forward & side (lady closes) with trail foot -- man rising to the toe turn as the lady completes her heel turn and rises to her toe. In the Mini Telespin, the man then simply points on the third beat of this first measure while the lady does a quick syncopated forward run two in SCP curving around the man. Keep a good upper body frame throughout. One common mistake is for the man to turn his left shoulder away from the lady (i.e., overly open the SCP). The man should keep his left shoulder in towards the lady (and the lady keep her right shoulder in towards the man). At the very end of this first measure the lady should begin turning to face the man so that going to CP can be smooth during the first step of the second measure. 

The second measure of the Mini Telespin begins with the man putting weight onto his left foot (the one he was just pointing) while the lady takes one more step around the man. Upon taking weight both man and lady will toe spin (left-face) rotating enough to face COH (if you began the figure from CP-LOD or CP-DLC). The final step is simply to close with the trail foot while rotating 1/8 more to end in CP-DRC. There are thus two weight taking steps in the second measure for the Mini Telespin. The standard definition says these are taken on beats one and two and that you hold the third beat. I recommend that you take more time for your spin and not take the final step till the very last beat of the second measure. This can lend to a “wee-ee” feeling in doing the spin. 

Note that if the Mini Telespin begins in CP-DLC and ends in CP-DRC (as it does in “Forrest Gump”) the figure will turn 1 1/4 left face. How is that “mini”? Well, the phase 6 figure Telespin to CP turns 1 3/8 as does a TeleRonde. The Telespins to BJO or SCP turn 1 3/4. 

Top Spin (phase 5) --

The Top Spin action in Waltz is similar to the Top Spin action in Foxtrot but the figures are done differently in each rhythm. In the Foxtrot the Top Spin action occurs first – just prior to taking the first step of the figure. In the Waltz the Top Spin action occurs on the third step. In the Foxtrot the Top Spin action usually turns only an 1/8 or at most ¼ of a turn while in the Waltz the Top Spin action turns as much as a ½ turn. The Top Spin action is simply a left face turn up on the toe of trail foot (man’s right, lady’s left) while in Banjo. One key point is that as the couple turns on their trail foot, the man keeps his lead foot (left) behind him while he rotates and the lady keeps her lead foot (right) in front of her while she rotates. Unlike some turns which begin turning from the hip or even with the placement of the foot, the Top Spin action begins with a rotation of the entire upper body as one unit (i.e. turn the top frame to start the turn). If you can master this Top Spin action the rest of the figure is fairly straightforward. The Waltz Top Spin figure can be described as a Feather Finish with Top Spin action on step three and then step back (forward for lady). In the Waltz the Top Spin figure begins either in Closed Position or in Banjo with trail foot free. There are four weight taking steps. The first three are like a Feather Finish. On the first step the man steps back on right and begins turning left face (lady steps forward on left and begins turning left face with the man). The second step is side turning LF to BJO (if not already in BJO). The third step is XIFR (cross in front with right) for man and XIBL (cross in back with left) for lady rising up onto the toe and turning left face staying in BJO (i.e. the Top Spin action). If the couple has properly kept their lead foot in place during the Top Spin action while turning on the third step, then the fourth and last step is simply putting weight onto that lead foot which results in a back step for the man and a forward step for the lady. By the book the first three steps of the Top Spin turn 3/8 left face and the amount of the Top Spin action turn can vary between 1/8 and ½. There is no turn on step four. Note that there are four weight taking steps in the Top Spin. That means in the Waltz that the Top Spin must be syncopated to fit those four steps into 3 beats of one measure of music. The official timing for the figure is 1,2&,3 which means that the Top Spin action on step three must be done in half a beat. I recommend instead that you dance it with a timing of 1&,2,3 which means you do the first two steps very quickly (in one beat) so that you can take a whole beat of music (second beat) to do the Top Spin action. This will help make the Top Spin feel smoother and more under control. 

Right Turning Lock (phase 5) –

We start this figure in Closed Position or Banjo with trail foot free and with momentum going back for the man (forward for lady). There are 4 steps, which means two of them are syncopated. I recommend the timing of 1&,2,3 where you syncopate the first two steps. As you begin, the man should take his right shoulder back (i.e. go to contra-banjo with right side leading). Quickly in one beat do a back and then a lock (man in front, lady in back) but as you do the lock start turning right face so by the time you are ready to take the third step you are already in CP facing at least COH or even DLC (assuming you began facing RLOD or DRW), and your feet will unlock. Being in a good CP the man can now step forward with his right foot directly into the lady between her feet for the first pivot right face step. Both man and lady pivot high on toe and rotate until man is facing LOD and then both take their final step forward in SCP to DLC. So this figure is just 4 steps – a back lock pivot 2. Two things make this figure more difficult than average. First, you must rotate together quickly after the back lock to a good closed position. If your closed position is loose it will be difficult to do the pivot 2 which follows. Second, pivots in general require good frame and balance with partner and this particular one begins and ends with trail foot free which makes it feel strange. Typically, you start the Right Turning Lock in CP or BJO facing DRW and finish in SCP facing LOD. 

Rumba Cross (Waltz phase 6)

The Rumba Cross is a phase 6 waltz figure. There are four steps done in one waltz measure where the first two are syncopated, i.e., timing is 1&23. Think of the Rumba Cross as a “Quick Twisty Vine 2, Pivot 2 keeping the lady in front”. The Rumba Cross starts in closed position, stays in closed position, and ends in closed position. What makes this figure a little more difficult than normal is the amount of turn. In one measure the Rumba Cross will turn ¾ to a full turn right face. To begin a Rumba Cross, the couple must on the very first step start turning their upper body frame right face so that although the step was taken going forward it ends feeling more like side step because of the body turn (man’s left shoulder leading). The figure gets its name from the quick second step which is a cross right in back (XRIB) for man and cross left in front (XLIF) for the lady. The crossing foot should cross with the heel of the foot first – not the toe. Doing this gives a “7” look to the feet, i.e., a rumba-style cross. Try not to overturn the bodies during this second step to SCAR – stay in closed or at least loose closed position. You must do these first two steps very quickly in one beat, i.e., syncopate them. In these first two “twisty vine” steps the couple should have been able to turn right face nearly 3/8 with the man feeling as if he has slightly maneuvered to face at least DRW. The last two steps of the Rumba Cross are simply a right face pivot in two steps keeping the lady in front. It is normal to end in closed position facing either LOD or DLW with lead foot free. 

Spin & Double Twist (Waltz phase 6)

Spin & Double Twist is a standard phase 6 waltz figure. It is three measures long, with the first measure being an "Spin Overturn", the second measure being the first "twist", and the third measure being the second "twist". One thing that makes the figure difficult is that you must turn nearly a full turn in each measure.

A Spin & Double Twist usually begins in CP facing RLOD or DRW or DRC with lead foot free. The first measure is a Spin Overturn, where the man steps back with the lead foot, pivoting right face, then steps forward into the lady continuing the pivot, and finally finishes by stepping side & back with lead foot to end facing DRW (i.e., ¾ to a full right face turn over the first three steps depending on where you were aligned to start). Stay in closed position for all three steps, loosening only at the very end to a "contra banjo" position. The lady will step forward directly into the man on her first step pivoting with the man through the second pivot step and then finishes by closing on her third step. This closing step allows the man to pull slightly away into a "loose closed position" and when he rotates his right shoulder back (ladies left shoulder forward) you will end in a "contra banjo" position. Note that for rise & fall, the first step lowers, the second step rises high onto toes, and the third step drifts down.

The second measure of the Spin & Double Twist is a twist for the man and a runaround for the lady. The man quickly crosses his right leg behind his left (XRIBL). Do not cross at the ankles or it will interfere with the twist – instead, the man should cross at the knees or even thighs. For the second beat of the second measure, the man will simply "unwind" by twisting right face and transferring weight to his right foot. On the third beat, the man then steps side & back with the lead foot similar to how he ended the first measure. The lady starts the second measure of the Spin & Double Twist with a very quick double-time run 2 (L/R) around the man (clockwise). On the second beat of this second measure she takes a third step around the man and swivels to face him. On the last beat she closes her right foot to end with left (trail) foot free and ends in the same contra banjo position as at the end of the first measure. Note that this was a full 360 degree right face turn during this second measure and that the couple does progress somewhat toward LOD.

The third and last measure of the Spin & Double Twist is very much like the second measure except for the last step. The man still does a XRIBL then unwinds transferring weight to right foot and turning until facing DRW, but on the last step he steps straight back. The lady still does a quick syncopated runaround 3 to face man in the first two beats (L/R, L), but instead of closing -- she steps forward directly into the man to end in closed position with man facing DRW and with trail foot free again.

The classic dance Dark Waltz, a phase 6 waltz by Deb & Tim Vogt, not only has a Spin & Double Twist in it but also an Outside Spin & Double Twist. To do the Outside Spin & Double Twist do everything the same except for the first step where the lady goes around the outside of the man instead of stepping directly into him for the first pivot step.

 

Tim Eum has prepared many Round Dance Tips for Calls 'n' Cues, WASCA, for his weekly Rocket Rounds email reports, and for other publications. DRDC is grateful for permission to collect and reprint. A Tim Eum archive.

 


If you would like to read other articles on dance position, technique, styling, and specific dance rhythms, you may visit the article TOC.




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